Gampopa (1079-1153) (Gang-bo-ba): Tibetan Dharma King from Drakpo who established the first Kagyu monastery and founded Kagyu-Drakpo School of Tibetan Buddhism. Disciple of Milarepa and teacher of Dusum Chenpa, the First Karmapa. Wrote The Jewel Ornament of Liberation. See DISCOURSES for outline. Currently incarnated as H.E. Goshir Gyalltsab Rinpoche.
Ganden Tri Rinpoche:The abbot of Ganden Monastery, the primary seat of Master Tsongkhapa, and the highest ranking spiritual leader of the Gelug Sect.
gandharvas: One of the eight types of celestial beings. Celestial musicians, and feeders on fragrance. Their king is Dhritirastra.
Garab Dorje (6th century BCE-second century CE) (Pramoda Vajra, Ga-rang Duo-jie Sheng-xi Jin-gang, dga’ rab rdo rje): Born in Uddiyana, the birthplace of Master Padmasambhava. Received the Great Perfection dharma directly from Vajrasattva Mahasattva and Vajrapani Bodhisattva, which he transmitted to Master Manjushrimitra and Guru Padmasambhava. Wrote Golden Letters.
garudas: A class of large bird-like beings that fight and eat the nagas. One of the eight types of celestial beings.
gawu: Amulet or protective talisman. They are usually very small, well-crafted boxes made of silver or copper or other precious metals. Their exterior contains very exquisite carving inlaid with pearls or other gems. Their interior usually contains a small image of the Buddha made of clay or metal. They may also contain an image of one’s guru. A gawu box can be taken wherever one goes and used to invoke protection from the Buddhas and Dharma Protectors.
Geluk (Gelug) Sect (Ge-lu): One of the five major sects of Tibetan Buddhism founded in the 16th century. It came out of the efforts of Master Tsongkhapa (1357-1419 CE) to reform the monasteries and reestablish the true Buddha-dharma. The throne holder or abbot of Master Tsongkhapa’s main monastery, Ganden, was recognized as the spiritual leader of the sect. In later years it became the most politically active of the five major sects with its secular head, the Dalai Lama, being also the secular leader of Tibet since the 17th century. Its monks are celibate and subject to strict disciplinary rules. Known as the Yellow Hats or Yellow Sect to the Chinese.
Genduk Chogngi: See “Six Jewels of India.”
generosity: The first of the six paramitas. See “three kinds of giving.”
Gesar, King: Famous Dharma King, who according to the epic poem written about him, ruled the Kingdom of Ling in Tibet. His current reincarnation is H.E. Dharma King Renzeng Nima, a Nyingma Dharma King.
Geshe (ge-xi): Title equivalent to a PhD in a Tibetan monastery. Geshe is the highest academic title one can attain in the Geluk Sect of Tibetan Buddhism with the title Larampa Geshe being a distingished geshe. One must memorize a vast amount of Buddhist material and must pass certain debates before one can attain such title. It usually requires at least twenty years of study.
Ghanavyuha: A pure sambhogakaya realm.
Ghosts (pretas, egui): Sentient beings from another realm of the desire world who have material bodies, but of a different sort than humans. Some ghosts or spirit beings inhabit the human and heavenly realms, but some live in their own place. They are not visible to most humans. They vary in level of accomplishment and may have considerable supernormal powers. Miserliness and greed are the primary causes for incarnation in this realm. Sometimes referred to as “hungry ghosts” as they never get enough of what they want and are always hungry.
god or goddess: See “deva.”
good fortune and wisdom (fu-hui): The karmic results of good deeds and practices like high position, good reputation, wealth, etc. Can be thought of as Buddhist resources with which one can help living beings. There are dharmas that can be practiced to increase your fortune. See SEVEN JEWELS.
grand disciple (da di-zi): The disciple of one’s disciple or the second generation disciple.
great happpiness wisdom body: A type of body realized by practitioners of esoteric Buddhism who have received the highest accomplishment, the pinnacle of perfection.
Great Perfection Dharma: There are various types and levels of this esoteric dharma. See “dzogchen” and “Longchen Nyingthig.”
Great Strength Bodhisattva: See “Mahàsthàmapràpta”
Grdhrakuta, Mount: This is one of several sites at which the Buddha and his monks spent the rainy seasons in India. The peak of Grdhrakuta was said to resemble a vulture’s head. Site of the second turning of the wheel of dharma where Shakyamuni Buddha expounded the prajnaparamita discourses on emptiness. See Stupa of Reconcillation at Rajgir for photo.
greed: A form of desire (raga), which along with hatred (anger) and ignorance, is one of the three forces that cause reincarnation.
Green Tara Buddha: Female Buddha who manifests in many forms and colors: born of the tears (compassion) of Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva.
Guan (Shi) Yin Bodhisattva: See “Avalokiteshvara Bodhisattva.”
Guan Yu: Dharma Protecting deity who helps practitioners with worldly matters. Historically, he was a legendary military general (160-219 CE), loyal to Emperor Liu Bei. Also known as the “Lord with the Magnificent Beard,” he is usually depicted with a red face (symbolizing extreme courage and loyalty) and holding a long-handled sword known as a “guandao.” He is regarded as a Taoist saint and god of war and martial arts. After he died he sought refuge with a Buddhist master and quickly obtained liberation whereupon he became a protector of the Dharma.
Gunaprabha: One of the “six jewels of India” and foremost student of Vasubandhu. Known for his work on the precepts, the Vinyasutra.
Gyelsay Togmay Sangpo, Geshe (1295-1369): Tibetan master who wrote Thirty-seven Practices of Bodhisattvas.
guru: Teacher, vajra master.
Guru Yoga: See “Yoga Fundamental Dharma.”
Guru Padmasambhava: See “Padmasambhava, Master.”